To call a good game it is really important you have a good handle on CONTACT Principles. To call the fouls correctly we need to know where the defensive player is and so we need to split our vision on the offence and defence player. Know the defensive players position and you will consistently make the right calls.
This is a reminder and a refresher of the contact principles which includes the cylinder principle, principles of verticality and what is a legal guarding position. The following information is quoted from the rule book:
33 CONTACT : GENERAL PRINCIPLES
33.1 CYLINDER PRINCIPLE
Cylinder Principle is defined as the space within the imaginary cylinder occupied by a player on the floor. It includes the space above the player and is limited to:
- the front palms of the hands
- the rear buttocks, and
- the sides of the outer edge of the arms and legs.
The hands and arms may be extended in front of the torso no further than the position of the feet, with the arms bent at the elbows so that the forearms and hands are raised. The distance between the feet will vary according to height.
33.2 PRINCIPLE OF VERTICALITY
During the game, each player has the right to occupy any position(cylinder) on the playing court not already occupied by an opponent.
The principle protects the space on the floor which he occupies and the space above him when jumps vertically within space.
As soon as the player leaves his veritical position (cylinder) and body contact occurs with an opponent who already established his own vertical position(cylinder), the player who left his veritical position (cylinder) is responsible for the contact.
The defensive player must not be penalised for leaving the floor vertically(within his cylinder) or having his hands and arms extended above him within his cylinder.
The offensive player, whether on the floor or airborne, shall not cause contact with the defensive player in a legal guarding position by:
- using his arms to create more space for himself(pushing off).
- spreading his legs or arms to cause contact during or immediately after a shot for a field goal.
33.3 LEGAL GUARDING POSITION
A defensive player has established an initial legal guarding position when:
- he is facing the opponent, and
- he has both feet on the floor.
The legal guarding position extends vertically above him(cylinder) from the floor to the ceiling. He may raise his arms and hands above his head or jump vertically but he must maintain them in a vertical position inside the imaginary cylinder.
33.4 GUARDING A PLAYER WHO CONTROLS THE BALL
When guarding a player who controls(holding or dribbling) the ball, the elements of times and distance do not apply.
The player with the ball must expect to be guarded and must be prepared to stop or change direction whenever an opponent takes an initial legal guarding position in front of him, even if this is done within a fraction of a second.
The guarding(defensive) player must establish an initial legal guarding position without causing contact before taking his position.
Once the defensive player has established an initial legal guarding position, he may move to guard his opponent, but he may not extend his arms, shoulders, hips or legs to prevent the dribbler from passing by him.
When judging a charge/block situation involving a player with the ball, an official shall use the following principles:
- The defensive player must establish an initial legal guarding position by facing the player with the ball and having both feet on the floor.
- The defensive player may remain stationary, jump vertically, move laterally or backwards in order to maintain the initial legal guarding position.
- When moving to maintain the initial legal guarding position, one foot or both feet may be off the floor for an instant, as long as the movement is lateral or backwards but not towards the player with the ball.
- Contact must occur on the torso, in which case the defensive player would be considered as having been at the place of contact first.
- Having established a legal guarding position the defensive player may turn within his cylinder to avoid injury.
In any of the above situations, the contact shall be considered as having been caused by the player with the ball.
33.5 GUARDING A PLAYER WHO DOES NOT CONTROL THE BALL
A player who does not have control of the ball is entitled to move freely on the playing court and take any position not already occupied by another player.
When guarding another player who does not control the ball, the elements of time and distance shall apply. A defensive player cannot place a position so near and/or so quickly in the path of a moving opponent that the latter does not have sufficient time or distance either to stop or change direction.
The distance is directly proportional to the speed of the opponent, never less than one(1) and never more than two(2) normal steps.
If a defensive player does not respect the elements of time and distance in taking his intial legal guarding position and contact with an opponent occurs, he is responsible for the contact.
Once the defensive player has established an initial legal guarding position, he may move to guard his opponent. He may not prevent him from passing by extending his arms, shoulders, hips or legs in his path. He may turn within his cylinder to avoid injury.
33.6 A PLAYER WHO IS IN THE AIR
A player who has jumped into the air from a place on the playing court has the right to land again at the same place.
He has the right to land on another place on the playing court provided that the landing place and the direct path between the take-off and the landing place is not already by an opponent(s) at the time of take-off.
If a player has taken off and landed but his momentum causes him to contact an opponent who has taken a legal guarding position beyond the landing place, the jumper is responsible for the contact.
An opponent may not move into the path of a player after that player has jumped into the air.
Moving under a player who is in the air and causing contact is usually an unsportsmanlike foul and in certain circumstances may be a disqualifying foul.
33.7 SCREENING: LEGAL AND ILLEGAL
Screening is an attempt to delay or prevent an opponent without the ball from reaching a desired position on the playing court.
LEGAL screening is when the player who is screening an opponent:
- WAS STATIONERY( inside his cylinder) when contacts occurs.
- had both feet on the floor when contact occurs.
ILLEGAL screening is when the player who is screening an opponent:
- Was MOVING when contact occurs>
- Did not give sufficient distance in setting a screen outside the field of vision of a STATIONERY opponent when contact occurred.
- Did not respect the elements of time and distance of an opponent in motion when contact occurred.
If the screen is set WITHIN the field of vision of a stationary position (front or lateral), the screener may establish the screen as close to him as he desires, provided there is no contact.
If the screen is set OUTSIDEthe field of vision of a stationary opponent, the screener must permit the opponent to take (1) normal step towards the screen without making contact.
If the opponent is in MOTION, the elements of time and distance shall apply. The screener must leave enough space so that the player who is being screened is able to avoid the screen by stopping or changing direction.
The distance required is never less than one(1) and never more than(2) normal steps.
A player who is legally screened is responsible for any contact with the player who set the screen.
Charging is illegal personal contact, with or without the ball, by pushing or moving into an opponent's torso.
Blocking is illegal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent with or without the ball.
A player who is attempting to screen is committing a blocking foul if contact occurs when he is moving and his opponent is stationary or retreating from him.
If a player disregards the ball, faces the opponent and shifts his position as the opponents shifts , he is primary responsible for any contact that occurs, unless other factors are involved.
The expression '' unless other factors are involved" refers to deliberate pushing, charging or holding of the player who is being screened. It is legal for a player to extend his arm(s) or elbow(s) outside the cylinder in taking position on the floor but they must be moved inside his cylinder when an opponent attempts to pass by. If the arm(s) or elbow(s) are outside the cylinder and contact occurs, it is blocking or holding.
GSABA BY-LAW REMINDERS
d) Names not on scoresheet results in a player Technical Foul against that player and shooting two penalty.
Providing the player has arrived and is ready to play and is in the coach bench area before the halftime sirens sounds the player can just have his name added to the scoresheet. You will still need to check the player has paid.
The following By-Law has been added:
3.7 TIME OUTS
a) In minor round games only. Each team can have one time-out per quarter. Unused time-outs cannot be carried over into another quarter.
The following By-Law was changed and now reads:
3.1 CLOCK STARTS
The clock will start at the time set out in the official program for the commencement of the match. The team must commence the match with two or more players and has until the half-time siren to have five players in playing uniform ready to play. Players must be on court or in their teams coaches area when the half-time siren sounds. Penalty is one point per minute until the fifth player reaches the coaches area. Failure to have five players on the court or in their teams coaches area by the half-time siren results in a forfeit.