ISSF

The International Shooting Sport Federation, also known with the acronym ISSF, is the governing body of the Olympic Shooting events in Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun disciplines, and of several non-Olympic Shooting sport events. ISSF’s activities include regulation of the sport, Olympic qualifications and organization of international competitions such as the ISSF World Cup Series, the ISSF World Cup Finals, the ISSF Separate World Championship in Shotgun events and the ISSF World Championship in all events. Founded in 1907 as the International Shooting Union, and then changing its name in 1998, the ISSF affiliates nowadays over 150 National Shooting Federations from Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Since 1980, the ISSF Presidency is held by Mr. Olegario Vázquez Raña, a successful entrepreneur and a member of Mexico’s shooting team at all Olympic Games from 1964 to 1976 and all World Championships from 1966 to 1979. The ISSF headquarters is based in MunichGermany.

Disciplines and olympic events

Shooting sports currently consist of three different disciplines: Pistol, Rifle and Shotgun. Each and every one of them includes multiple events, varying for distance from the target, position and type of sport gun.

Pistol

Olympic shooting includes five different pistol events: 10 m Air Pistol Men, 10 m Air Pistol Women, 50 m Pistol Men, 25 m Pistol Women, 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol Men.

For 10 m Air Pistol events, athletes use air pistols loaded with .177/ 4.5 mm calibre pellets. For 25 m and 50 m Pistol events, athletes use pistol loaded with .22/ 5.6 mm calibre shots.

According to the ISSF Rules changes introduced after the 2012 Olympic Games, 10 m and 50 m Pistol finals, as well as the 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol Men final are conducted with an elimination-style format. 25 m Pistol Women finals are conducted over two phases: semi-finals and medal matches. Also according to the new rules, all Pistol finals start from zero and the qualification score is no longer carried forward into the final.

10 m Air Pistol (Men)

The 10 m Air Pistol Men event is conducted in standing position, and the target is placed at a distance of 10 meters. Athletes reload after each shot, as pistols are single-loaded. The qualifications round consists of 60 shots, while in the elimination-style final athletes can shoot a maximum of 20 shots.

Following the athletes presentation, the final begins with 2 series of 3 shots, where each series must be fired in 150 seconds. After the first 2 series, a maximum of 14 single shots can be fired, and in this case each shot must be fired in 50 second. From this point, the lowest-ranked athlete is eliminated after every 2 shots. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line and the last 2 shots deciding the gold medal winner.

Tie scores are broken by shoot-offs shots.

10 m Air Pistol (Women)

Just like in the men event, the 10 m Air Pistol Women event is conducted in standing position, the target is placed at a distance of 10 meters and athletes reload after each shot. The women qualifications consist of 40 shots, while the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 20 shots.

The final procedure is also very similar to the men event, as it begins with 2 series of 3 shots, where each series must be fired in 150 seconds. After the first 2 series, a maximum of 14 single shots can be fired, and in this case each shot must be fired in 50 second. From this point, the lowest-ranked athlete is eliminated after every 2 shots. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last 2 shots deciding the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs shots.

50 m Pistol Men

The 50 m Pistol Men event is conducted in standing position. The target is placed at a distance of 50 meters and athletes reload after each shot. The qualification round consists of 60 shots and the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 20 shots.

Just like in the two 10 m events the final begins with 2 series of 3 shots, where each series must be fired in 150 seconds. After the first two series, a maximum of 14 single shots can be fired, and in this case each shot must be fired in 50 second. From this point, the lowest-ranked athlete is eliminated after every 2 shots. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last 2 shots deciding the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs shots.

25 m Pistol Women

The 25 m Pistol Women event is conducted in standing position and the target is placed at a distance of 25 meters. The event is made up of three different stages: one qualification round, two semifinals and two finals, one for the gold medal and one for the bronze. Athletes’ pistol are loaded with five .22 caliber shots in a magazine, whose diameter is 5.6 mm.

The qualification round consists of 60 shots, after which the top-8 athletes advance to semifinal, consisting of 5 series of 5 shots each. Athletes only have 3 seconds to fire each shot, and they must lower their arm down at a 45° angle before firing each shot. The top-2 athletes after the semifinal advance to the gold medal match; the 3rd and the 4th ranked athletes go to the bronze medal match.

The scoring system changes when it comes to the medal matches: each match is fired on a series-by-series basis, with every series including 5 shots. The athlete with the highest number of hits in each series receives 2 points, and in case there is a tie in a series 1 point is awarded to both athletes. The first one who reaches 7 points, wins the match. If both athletes reaches 7 points after the same number of series, they will fire additional series until the tie is broken.

The principle adopted to assign points during the medal matches remains hit or miss: a shot of 10.2 points or more counts as a hit; a shot lower than 10.2 points counts as a miss.

25 m Rapid Fire Pistol Men

The 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol Men event is conducted in standing position, and the target is placed at a distance of 25 meters. The qualification round consists of 60 shots, divided in 2 rounds. Each round consists of six 5-shot series: the first 2 series are fired in 8 seconds and the following 2 in 6 seconds. The last 2 series are fired in 4 seconds, meaning that athletes have less than 1 second per shot.

The top-6 athletes after the qualification round advance to the elimination-style final, consisting of 8 series of 5 shots each. Each series must be fired in 4 seconds. From the 4th series and after every single one of them, the athlete with the lowest score is eliminated and has to leave the match. Eliminations continue until the 8th series, when the gold and the silver medals are decided.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs series.

The scoring system terminology used during the final is hit or miss: a shot of 9.7 points or more counts as a hit; a shot lower than 9.7 points counts as a miss.

Rifle

Olympic shooting includes five different rifle events: 10 m Air Rifle Men, 10 m Air Rifle Women, 50 m Rifle 3 Positions Men, 50 m Rifle 3 Positions Women, 50 m Rifle Prone Men.

For 10 m Air Rifle events, athletes use air pistols loaded with .177/ 4.5 mm calibre pellets. For 50 m Rifle events, athletes use pistol loaded with .22/ 5.6 mm calibre shots. In this discipline, athletes must wear special shooting equipment such as jackets, trousers, gloves and shoes, whose characteristics are regulated and checked by the Federation.

According to the ISSF Rule changes introduced after the 2012 Olympic Games, all Olympic Rifle finals are conducted with an elimination-style format: the top-8 shooters after the qualifications advance to the final. The qualification score is no longer carried forward into the final, as every athlete starts from zero.

10 m Air Rifle Men

The 10 m Air Rifle Men event is conducted in the standing position, and the target is placed at a distance of 10 meters. Athletes reload their rifles after each shot. The qualifications consist of 60 shots, while in the elimination-style final athletes can shoot a maximum of 20 shots.

After the athletes’ presentation, the final begins with 2 series of 3 shots, where each series must be fired within 150 seconds. After the first two series, a total of 14 single shots are fired, and in this case each shot must be fired within 50 seconds. From this point, after every 2 shots the lowest-ranked athlete is eliminated. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last 2 shots deciding the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs.

10 m Air Rifle Women

The 10 m Air Rifle Women event is also conducted in the standing position. The target is placed at a distance of 10 meters and athletes reload after each shot, as rifles are single-loaded. The qualifications round consists of 40 shots, while the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 20 shots.

Just like in the men event, the final begins with 2 series of 3 shots, where each series must be fired within 150 seconds. After the first two series, a total of 14 single shots are fired, and in this case each shot must be fired within 50 seconds. From this point, after every 2 shots the lowest-ranked athlete is eliminated. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last two shots deciding the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs.

50 m Rifle 3 Positions Men

The 50 m Rifle 3 Positions Men event is conducted in three different shooting positions: kneeling, prone and standing. The target is placed at a distance of 50 meters and athletes reload after each shot, as rifles are single-loaded.

The qualification round consists of 40 shots in each of the three positions, for a total of 120 shots, while the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 45 shots: 15 shots in each position.

The final begins in the kneeling position, with 3 series of 5 shots each that have to be fired in 200 seconds per series. After a changeover time, used by the athletes to set-up their rifles and shooting equipment as well as for some sighting shots, the prone position section of the match starts. Athletes fire 3 series of 5 shots each, with a time limit 150 seconds per series. After a second and last changeover break, the final continues with the standing position, starting with 2 series of 5 shots each that have to be fired within 250 seconds. Here the two lowest-ranked athletes are eliminated. The standing position shooting then continues with 5 single shots and a limitation of 50 seconds per shot. The lowest-ranking athlete is eliminated after every single shot. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last shot deciding the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs.

50 m Rifle 3 Positions Women

The 50 m Rifle 3 Positions Women event is conducted in three different shooting positions: kneeling, prone and standing. The target is placed at a distance of 50 meters and athletes reload after each shot, as rifles are single-loaded.

The qualification round consists of 20 shots in each of the three positions, for a total of 60 shots, while the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 45 shots: 15 shots in each position.

After the athletes’ presentation, the final begins in the kneeling position, with 3 series of 5 shots each that have to be fired within 200 seconds per series. After a changeover time, used by the athletes to set-up their rifles and shooting equipment as well as for some sighting shots, the prone positions section of the match starts. Athletes fire 3 series of 5 shots each, with a time limit of 150 seconds per series. After a second and last changeover break, the final continues with the standing position, starting with 2 series of 5 shots each that have to be completed in 250 seconds. Here, the two lowest-ranked athletes are eliminated. The standing position section then continues with 5 single shots and a time limit of 50 seconds. The lowest-ranking athlete is eliminated after every single shot. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last shot decides the gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs.

50 m Rifle Prone Men

The 50 m Rifle Prone Men event is conducted in prone position. The target is placed at a distance of 50 meters and athletes reload after each shot, as rifles are single-loaded. The qualification round consist of 60 shots, while the elimination-style final consists of a maximum of 20 shots.

After the athletes’ presentation, the final starts with 2 series of 3 shots, and a limitation of 100 seconds per series. After the first 2 series, a maximum of 14 single shots can be fired, and the time limit is lowered to 30 seconds per shot. From this point, after every 2 shots, the lowest-ranking athlete is eliminated. The final ends up with only two athletes left on the line, and the last two shots decide the Gold medal winner.

Ties are broken by shoot-offs.

Shotgun

Olympic shooting includes five different shotgun events: Trap Men, Trap Women, Skeet Men, Skeet Women and Double Trap Men.

Athletes use a 12-gauge, single trigger, over-under shotgun, loaded with smooth bored shells with a maximum of 24.5 grams of pellets.

Targets used in ISSF Shotgun events measure 11 cm/4” in diameter and 2,5 cm/1” in height. Targets used in semifinals and medal matches might also contain an orange or green powder that puffs when the target is hit, bringing out the definition of flash targets. For Trap and Double Trap events targets are thrown by special machines installed in a bunker placed 15 meters in front of the shooter. For the Skeet events the machines are placed inside two houses located at the left and right end of the range.

According to new rules introduced after the 2012 Olympic Games, all the Shotgun finals start from zero. Meaning that the qualifications and semifinal scores are not carried forward into the following competition phases.

In all of the five events, the top-2 athletes after the Semifinal advance to the gold medal match, while the 3rd and 4th ranked athletes go to the bronze medal match. Ties after the qualification round, involving 2nd or 4th place at the end of a semifinal, or at the end of a medal match, are broken by shoot-offs: the first who misses is out.

World records are recorded during the qualifications only.

Trap Men

Each athlete passing through the Trap Men qualifications shoots 125 targets, divided in five rounds of 25 targets each, typically over two days of competition. Athletes competing in the qualification phase are divided in six-shooter squads, use all of the five stations of the layout, and might fire two shots at each target. Targets are thrown randomly, so the shooter does not know the angle and the direction of the target, even though the rotation logic ensures that all competitors will shoot the same targets sometimes during the round.

The top-6 shooters after the qualifications advance to the semifinal, where they shoot 15 targets. Targets are thrown with the same random-logic of the qualification round, but semifinalists can only fire one shot at each target. The top-2 shooters after the semifinal will advance to the gold medal match, while the shooters ranked 3rd and 4th will advance to the bronze medal match.

During a medal match, the two athletes compete on stations 2, 3 and 4 only, shooting a total of 15 targets. Like in the semifinal, targets are thrown randomly and medal match contenders can only fire one shot at each target. Ties at the end of a medal match are decided by shoot-offs.

Trap Women

Each athlete passing through the Trap Women qualifications shoots 75 targets, divided in three rounds of 25 targets each, typically over one day of competition. Athletes competing in the qualification phase are divided in six-shooter squads, use all of the five stations of the layout, and might fire two shots at each target. Targets are thrown randomly, so the shooter does not know the angle and the direction of the target, even though the rotation logic ensures that all competitors will shoot the same targets sometimes during the round.

The top-6 shooters after the qualifications advance to the semifinal, where they shoot 15 targets. Targets are thrown with the same random-logic of the qualification round, but semifinalists can only fire one shot at each target. The top-2 shooters after the semifinal will advance to the gold medal match, while the shooters ranked 3rd and 4th will advance to the Bronze medal match.

During a medal match, the two athletes will compete on stations 2, 3 and 4 only, shooting a total of 15 targets. Like in the semifinal, targets are thrown randomly and medal match contenders can only fire one shot at each target. Ties at the end of a medal match are decided by shoot-offs.

Skeet Men

Each athlete passing through the Skeet Men qualifications shoots 125 targets, divided in five rounds of 25 targets each, typically over two competition days. Athletes competing in the qualification phase are divided in six-shooter squads, and use all of the eight stations of the skeet layout. Targets are thrown from the two houses, low-house and high-house, placed at the left and right end of the range. During the qualification round targets can be thrown simultaneously, or double mode, or one at a time, also called single mode, depending on the station. The shooters know the direction of the targets in advance, and is only allowed to fire one shot at each target.

The top-6 shooters after the qualifications advance to the semifinal. There, they compete on stations 3, 4, 5 and then back to 4. Semifinalists shoot one regular double, with the high target first and the low target second, and one reverse double, meaning low target first and high target second, on each station. The semifinal stage consists therefore of 16 targets: the top-2 shooters after the semi-final advance to the gold medal match; the 3rd and 4th ranked shooters go to the bronze medal match.

During a medal match, the two shooters compete again on stations 3, 4, 5 and then back to 4, shooting a total of 16 targets. Targets are thrown following the same logic of the semifinal: one regular double and one reverse double on each station. Ties at the end of a medal match are decided by shoot-offs.

Skeet Women

Each athlete passing through Skeet Women qualifications shoot 75 targets, divided in three rounds of 25 targets each, typically over one competition day. Athletes competing in the qualification phase are divided in six-shooter squads, and use all of the eight stations of the skeet layout. Targets are thrown from the two houses, low-house and high-house, placed at the left and right end of the range. During the qualifications, targets can be thrown simultaneously, also called double mode, or one at a time, single mode, depending on the station. The shooter knows the direction of the targets in advance, and is only allowed to fire one shot at each target.

The top-6 shooters after the qualifications advance to the Semifinal. There, they compete on stations 3, 4, 5 and then back to 4. Just like in the Skeet Men, semifinalists shoot one regular double and one reverse double on each station. Also like in the men event, the semifinal stage consists of 16 targets: the top-2 shooters after the semifinal will advance to the gold medal match; The 3rd and 4th ranked shooters will go to the bronze medal match.

During a medal match, the two shooters compete again on stations 3, 4, 5 and then back to 4, shooting a total of 16 targets. Targets are thrown following the same logic of the semifinal: one regular double and one reverse double on each station. Ties at the end of a medal match are decided by shoot-offs.

Double Trap Men

Each athlete passing through the Double Trap Men qualifications shoots 150 targets, divided in three rounds of 50 targets each. Athletes competing in the qualification phase are divided in six-shooter squads, and use all of the five stations of the layout. Targets are always thrown two at a time simultaneously, or in doubles, following a scheme.

The top-6 shooters after the qualifications advance to the semifinal round. There, they shoot at a total of 30 targets, meaning 15 doubles. The top-2 shooters after the semifinal advance to the gold medal match, while the shooters ranked 3rd and 4th advance to the bronze medal match.

During a medal match, the two shooters compete on stations 2, 3 and 4 only, shooting at a total of 30 targets. Ties at the end of a medal match are decided by shoot-offs.

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